International Quality of Life Month on January, 2020: What are some backup systems on the International Space Station?
January, 2020 is International Quality of Life Month 2020. January is International Quality of Life Month Quality of Life Month
Backup plan for the International Space Station
July 31, 2011 By Ralph Vartabedian, Los Angeles Times
The space shuttle flew to the International Space Station 37 times, but its retirement leaves NASA reliant on the Russian Soyuz for future trips, raising the question of what would happen if the Soyuz is grounded for an accident or another problem.
As it turns out, NASA does not have a formal contingency plan, said Michael Suffredini, NASA's program manager for the space station. But without hesitation, he rattled off a list of steps the agency could take.
"We would keep the crew on orbit for some months and likely extend that if we thought that was viable," Suffredini said. Crews normally stay six months.
If necessary, the space station crew could leave via the two docked Soyuz capsules, which can each carry three astronauts.
The station can be operated by ground controllers, so long as critical parts - such as guidance gyroscopes - don't require human hands for repairs. It carries 6 metric tons of fuel, enough to keep it boosted to the proper orbit for 360 days. Russian progress cargo ships can replenish the fuel supply robotically.
An analysis after the Columbia shuttle accident showed that if the space station were unoccupied for more than six months, the chance of it leaving orbit and crashing into the atmosphere would increase tenfold, although that risk is still minimal, Suffredini said. "Most of our critical systems have redundancy," he said.
Even that low risk is something to think about, given the station's importance and cost. The space station represents one of the most complex and ambitious construction projects in human history, requiring new technologies in materials, tools and spacesuits, as well as the development of new human skills for working in space. It is regarded as the most expensive machine ever built, with the U.S. cost alone about $65 billion. Combined with the other partners' shares, the program's life-cycle cost is more than $100 billion.
The station was completed only this year and is finally ready to allow NASA, along with its international partners, to conduct full-scale research. Initially, 36 hours per week of research will be done on the American side of the station, while the Russians will control their own programs in their labs.
NASA has an ambitious agenda in astrophysics, biology and medicine, said agency spokesman Kelly O. Humphries. Clinical trials are about to start on a vaccine pioneered at the station for a type of salmonella, he added.
Others say any verdict on the quality of that science is not yet in. "We are just getting into the science program, and the outcome of that is yet to be determined," said Charles Vick, a senior analyst at GlobalSecurity.org, a Washington think tank.
If the station were to fall into harm's way while unmanned and had to be "deorbited," NASA would aim it at an empty spot in the ocean. Such a decision would rest with the Space Station Control Board, an international panel that runs the program and is chaired by Suffredini.
"Given the significance of this decision, we would ultimately make a recommendation to our agency leadership, who would ... approve any plan to deorbit the ISS," he said.
How is life in Netherland?
It's a good place to live and bring up children (speaking as a mum of 2). Family values are still respected, and it is a society with rules and regulations and by & large which are followed
To answer the first person, Marijuana is not legal in any part of the country (laws apply throughout the country and not to specific parts such as Amsterdam!). Marijuana is tolerated under agreed conditions and hard drugs acted on stringently. The simple fact is that marijuana is not a big deal in the Netherlands (like it is with some foreign tourists). Actually the consumption rates in (e.g. teenagers) is substantially lower here than in the rest of Western Europe
Taxes are relatively high compared with many countries in Europe, but you see this back in the services such as education, policing, and public amenities.
Recycling is actively promoted (already for many years).
The Netherlands was in the top 10 counties where people surveyed stated their "happiness".
It is not all sun & roses of course. The climate is very different from Dubai. It does rain substantially more here (throughout the year). Also depending on where you live, there are areas of population density (e.g. in the Amsterdam-Den Haag-Rotterdam-Utrecht area) where the majority of industry is (and therefore people wanting to live close to work).
English is spoken in this same area to quite a high level considering it is not a native language, so you are able to get around (supermarket etc), but it is advisable to learn Dutch if you are settling here beyond e.g. 6 months so that you can experience life to the full
Many tv programs are purchased from the US & UK in English (and merely subtitled in Dutch below) so you are able to watch TV (and cinema movies) in English. There is a wide selection on offer and many international channels are available on satiliette & digital.
My experience of Dubai is limited to my dealing with colleagues and business associates there (my former company had a warehouse there & a distributor). Of course over dinner we were able to discuss life in Dubai.
Anyway, I have experience with many foreign nationals (from working in an International company) who live here in the Netherlands, and the vast majority throuroughly enjoy their time here and relish the experience of living here
So personally would say, if you have the opportunity, to take it with both hands. It is a great experience for both personal growth and of course for your cv!
which brand has longer life span for LCD TV?
LCD TV from Those Worldwide International Brand * Sony.Samsung.Panasonic.Sharp.LG.Toshiba.Philips.Hitachi.* is always RELIABLE.as all of them ( 32 inc to 108 inc ) Use own factory made ( some buy JV ) LCD display panel , only select grad 1 products, Those Local or in-house Brand TV is made by other China manufacturers , and LCD display panel is buy from other too. because of prices , there go for low quality maker, even there may use Samsung-Sony (S-LCD ) or LG made panel , but always go for grad 2 products, or max 40 % of it for each shipment ( one of the main reason, there prices is always very low ) . Brand who made own Display panel.. S-LCD in Korea, joint venture between Samsung-Sony 50/50%. made panel for Samsung and Sony also supply to other .Sharp Japan is the world largest LCD display panel maker for the pass 12 years, for Sharp TV use and supply to other , is hi- quality products, Mose of the Sony hi-end model use Sharp Panel. Panasonic Display made Plasma and LCD panel .Hitachi Display Japan made for own use and supply to other . Panasonic and Toshiba joint venture LCD display in Singapore AFPD , for Toshiba and Panasonic TV also supply to other. LG-Philips joint venture in Korea ,products for LG and Philips,also supply to other. after june 2008 is total own by LG, some of the Philips tv use other maker panel after July 2008. Taiwan AU-Otron and Che-Mei Electronics ( JV with Japan Funai for LCD panel ) is also main display panel maker, there supply more to China or Taiwa TV manufactures , because of prices is much lowe than other.but not so high Quality products ,// Just for you information , Vizio is a USA local brand ,( small quantity sold in Taiwan under Viszo brand , other than USA/Taiwan Vizio do not enter ) Vizio is design by Taiwan Zealway Micro Electronice , TV is made in China , as Zealway dont made any LCD display, is but from other. i should said 32 inc Samsung is worth for paid more.