Dystonia Awareness Week on May, 2024: Anyone know if MS can cause seizures?
Dystonia Awareness Week 2024. Diagnosed with Dystonia? - Learn about the latest research Help find a cure!
What are the symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis?
The central nervous system (CNS) controls much of the body's functioning and much of this activity passes through the white matter at some point. It is not surprising, therefore, that a disease which damages white matter can produce a very wide range of symptoms. Indeed, there are few diseases with more potential symptoms than multiple sclerosis.
In this section, I list many of the symptoms of MS and, in the next section, I will list some of their treatments.
Few of the symptoms of MS are unique to the disease and, even if you have one or more of them, it doesn't necessarily mean that you have multiple sclerosis. However, all of these symptoms deserve medical attention and you should see a doctor if you develop any of them.
I've arranged the symptoms into these groupings: Visual, Motor, Sensory, Coordination and Balance, Bowel, Bladder and Sexual, Cognitive and Others. Please remember that most people with MS won't get most of these symptoms and the ones that seem the most terrifying usually only manifest themselves in the later stages of the disease.
I want to skim through each symptom at quite a high level and discuss them in more detail in the encylopaedia. I've set up links to the encylopaedia pieces for each one. As is usual with stuff on this site, it's all work in progress. This section more than any other will take time to complete, but you can see it while it builds up.
Optic Neuritis Blurred vision, eye pain, loss of colour vision, blindness
Diplopia Double Vision
Nystagmus Jerky Eye Movements
Ocular Dysmetria Constant under- or overshooting eye movements
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Lack of coordination between the two eyes, nystagmus, diplopia
Movement and sound phosphenes Flashing lights when moving eyes or in response to a sudden noise
Afferent Pupillary Defect Abnormal pupil responses
Paresis, Monoparesis, Paraparesis, Hemiparesis, Quadraparesis Muscle weakness - partial or mild paralysis
Plegia, Paraplegia, Hemiplegia, Tetraplegia, Quadraplegia Paralysis - Total or near total loss of muscle strength
Spasticity Loss of muscle tone causing stiffness, pain and restricting free movement of affected limbs
Dysarthria Slurred speech and related speech problems
Muscle Atrophy Wasting of muscles due to lack of use
Spasms, Cramps Involuntary contraction of muscles
Hypotonia, Clonus Problems with posture
Myoclonus, Myokymia Jerking and twitching muscles, Tics
Restless Leg Syndrome Involuntary Leg Movements, especially bothersome at night
Footdrop Foot drags along floor during walking
Dysfunctional Reflexes MSRs, Babinski's, Hoffman's, Chaddock's
Paraesthesia Partial numbness, tingling, buzzing and vibration sensations
Anaesthesia Complete numbness/loss of sensation
Neuralgia, Neuropathic and Neurogenic pain Pain without apparent cause, burning, itching and electrical shock sensations
L'Hermitte's Electric shocks and buzzing sensations when moving head
Proprioceptive Dysfunction Loss of awareness of location of body parts
Trigeminal Neuralgia Facial pain
Coordination and Balance Symptoms
Ataxia Loss of coordination
Intention tremor Shaking when performing fine movements
Dysmetria Constant under- or overshooting limb movements
Vestibular Ataxia Abnormal balance function in the inner ear
Vertigo Nausea/vomitting/sensitivity to travel sickness from vestibular ataxia
Speech Ataxia Problems coordinating speech, stuttering
Dystonia Slow limb position feedback
Dysdiadochokinesia Loss of ability to produce rapidly alternating movements, for example to move to a rhythm
Bowel, Bladder and Sexual Symptoms
Frequent Micturation, Bladder Spasticity Urinary urgency and incontinence
Flaccid Bladder, Detrusor-Sphincter Dyssynergia Urinary hesitancy and retention
Erectile Dysfunction Male and female impotence
Anorgasmy Inability to achieve orgasm
Retrograde ejaculation Ejaculating into the bladder
Frigidity Inability to become sexually aroused
Constipation Infrequent or irregular bowel movements
Fecal Urgency Bowel urgency
Fecal Incontinence Bowel incontinence
Cognitive dysfunction Short-term and long-term memory problems, forgetfulness, slow word recall
Mood swings, emotional lability, euphoria
Aphasia, Dysphasia Impairments to speech comprehension and production
Uhthoff's Symptom Increase in severity of symptoms with heat
Gastroesophageal Reflux Acid reflux
Impaired sense of taste and smell
Inappropriately cold body parts
Autonomic nervous system problems
so answer is YES.
.good luck with ur MCQ examination..
Can Prozac cause chronic, constant headaches?
Fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
According to the manufacturer of Prozac brand of fluoxetine Eli Lilly, fluoxetine is contraindicated in individuals taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pimozide (Orap) or thioridazine (Mellaril). The prescribing information recommends that the treatment of the patients with liver impairment "must be approached with caution". The elimination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine is about twice slower in these patients, resulting in the proportionate increase of exposure to the drug.
Among the common adverse effects associated with fluoxetine and listed in the prescribing information, the effects with the greatest difference from placebo are nausea (22% vs 9% for placebo), insomnia (19% vs 10% for placebo), somnolence (12% vs 5% for placebo), anorexia (10% vs 3% for placebo), anxiety (12% vs 6% for placebo), nervousness (13% vs 8% for placebo), asthenia (11% vs 6% for placebo) and tremor (9% vs 2% for placebo). Those that most often resulted in interruption of the treatment were anxiety, insomnia, and nervousness (1-2% each), and in pediatric trials—mania (2%).
In addition, rash or urticaria, sometimes serious, was observed in 7% patients in clinical trials; one-third of these cases resulted in discontinuation of the treatment. Postmarketing reports note several cases of complications developed in patients with rash. The symptoms included vasculitis and lupus-like syndrome. Death has been reported to occur in association with these systemic events.
Akathisia, that is inner tension, restlessness, and the inability to stay still, often accompanied by "constant pacing, purposeless movements of the feet and legs, and marked anxiety," is a common side effect of fluoxetine. Akathisia usually begins after the initiation of the treatment or increase of the dose and disappears after fluoxetine is stopped or its dose is decreased, or after treatment with propranolol. There are case reports directly linking akathisia with suicidal attempts, with patients feeling better after the withdrawal of fluoxetine, and again developing severe akathisia on repeated exposure to fluoxetine. These patients described "that the development of the akathisia made them feel suicidal and that it had precipitated their prior suicide attempts." The experts note that because of the link of akathisia with suicide and the distress it causes to the patient, "it is of vital importance to increase awareness amongst staff and patients of the symptoms of this relatively common condition". More rarely, fluoxetine has been associated with related movement disorders acute dystonia and tardive dyskinesia.
Other side effects may occur, including sexual dysfunction. Possible sexual side effects can include anorgasmia, reduced libido and impotence.
Fluoxetine taken during pregnancy also increases rate of poor neonatal adaptation. Because fluoxetine is excreted in human milk, nursing while on fluoxetine is not recommended. The American Association of Pediatrics classifies fluoxetine as a drug for which the effect on the nursing infant is unknown but may be of concern.
The simultaneous use of fluoxetine with triptans, tramadol or other serotonergic agents can result in a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction called serotonin syndrome
I'm petrified I am goind mad and will end up in a mental hospital?
Anne Marie, I think you might be in withdrawal. As you appear to have stopped taking antidepressants because you are pregnant the advice to go back on and taper off slowly is something that you probably won't want to do. However, if you are aware that it is down to withdrawal, not down to you as a person, it might make it easier for you to cope with when things are bad.
Going to an antidepressant withdrawal support group might help too, so that you can talk to people who are going through the same thing, or have been through it.
There's one here, but I think you need to join the yahoo group to be take part:
Its called Prozac Awareness, but I think that is because prozac was the first of the 'modern' antidepressants and that they are a group that have people who have problems with (and coming off) all sorts of other antidepressants.
I think the panic attacks you're talking about are probably akathisia. Akathisia is usually caused by (while taking) drugs like antidepressants, but it can also be caused by too-rapid withdrawal from those drugs. This is an old (2002) article on akathisia, in the case described it was caused while on an antidepressant but there are many reports now of it being caused by coming off:
You are not going mad although it might well feel as if you are. Your body, including your brain and your mind, is reacting to the chemical changes caused by removal of the drug and the faster you came off, the worse it is likely to feel. These drugs are best tapered off as slowly as it takes any individual to do so without suffering withdrawals.
As you're pregnant and probably would not want to go back on and come off slowly, you can help soften the withdrawals to a degree in other ways. I think someone has mentioned magnesium (calmag - calcium and magnesium in the powdered form - apparently helps some people). Keep away from coffee and alcohol. Take Omega 3 (the higher the quality the better, and its also good for developing babies), eat foods that are as natural as possible so that you're not taking additives etc, and find the best way you can to relax which you'll be the best one to judge as people relax in different ways.
Remember that this is not YOU, its the adverse withdrawal effects of the drug. I'll edit this and add to it if other things or links come to mind.
Take good care of yourself girl. All the very best.
I've come back to add this and I'm putting withdrawal in uppercase so its easier to spot it.
" Most authors refer to acute, tardive, chronic, WITHDRAWAL and pseudoakathisia. Acute akathisia has an onset within hours or days, however some authors suggest the onset may be up to six months after an increase in dosage. Tardive akathisia is generally taken to mean akathisia of delayed onset (usually three months), not related to a recent change in drug or dose. It has been found to be significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia3 and some have proposed it to be a variant where the trunk and limbs are most affected. Activation procedures may help distiniguish between the two, for example finger tapping may increase symptoms in tardive dyskinesia but decrease the compulsion to move in akathisia. Chronic akathisia usually refers to a persistence of symptoms for three months irrespective of the type of onset. WITHDRAWAL akathisia starts within six weeks of discontinuation or a significant dose decrease and pseudoakathisia refers to a variant where there are objective symptoms but no subjective awareness or distress. These individuals tend to display more negative symptoms of psychotic illness. "
That is a paragraph from "AKATHISIA - A BRIEF REVIEW"
in the Scottish Medical Journal. Here's the page if you want to read the rest of it:
(You'll see "panic" mentioned somewhere in the first paragraph on that page).
And back again. In case you DO go back on to taper off, here is the original version of how to withdraw with more information on the whole issue:
and here is the UPDATED version that has changes in how to withdraw because of changes in meds and more info being available:
You might get additional advice from the support group mentioned somewhere above in this answer as well.
Look after yourself girl and always remember that it isn't something wrong with you, its neurophysiological chemical withdrawal effects of the drug you were on. I hope that very soon you get through it and come out of the other side feeling well. Take care.